Overview

The deposition of paraffin and asphaltene in oil & gas wells are among the most common problems leading to the deterioration of oil and gas production. However, this problem is one of the easiest to rectify with the proper PARC400 Chemical treatment.

An increase in production of 10%, 30% or even 100%, after a PARC400 Chemical formation treatment, is not uncommon in wells having formation paraffin and asphaltene problems. Some wells that have paraffin / asphaltene problems may also have a combination of other problems.
An increased in production is only possible after the removal of paraffin / asphalterne buildup that has been deposited in the formation and is restricting the inflow of production from the formation. The removal of those deposits in the formation restores permeability and again allows the free flow of oil and gas. The removal of the deposits in the tubing, flow lines, storage tanks, etc. leads to increased efficiency, decreased operational cost and minimized down time.

There are several causes leading to the deposition of paraffin and asphaltene in the formation. Some of those causes occur naturally, others are induced by production practices. Natural causes include streaming potential (due to the flow of the oil); and temperature drop at the face of the formation, due to the expansion of the fluids as they enter the well bore. Deposition induced by the production practices include hot oil treatments that do not have a blend of PARC400 Chemical with the hot oil…

Organic deposits (heavy hydrocarbon deposit) associated with reducing oil and gas production in wells are mainly paraffin and asphalterne. While paraffin & asphaltene deposits are usually the major component in these deposits, they are the problems that are readily treated with PARC 400 Chemical. Paraffin & asphaltene deposition in the formation, tubing, flow lines and other production facilities are the main cause to a decrease in production and an increase in operational problems.

No two crudes are the same. Therefore, their paraffin and asphaltene compositions are different. Paraffin deposits, in addition to containing asphaltenes, may contain resins, gums, salt crystals, scales, clays, silts, sand and water.

Paraffins are straight or branched chain nonpolar alkanes of relatively high molecular weight. Their chains usually consist of 20 to 60 carbon atoms with a melting range of 36 – 102°C (98 – 215°F). Asphaltenes, on the other hand, are high molecular weight cyclic aromatic compounds which usually contain nitrogen, oxygen and/or sulfur in their molecular structure. Their melting range is higher than that of paraffins. Asphaltenes are usually negatively charged polar compounds.

In general, the lower the API gravity of the crude, the more asphaltene present, e.g., crude of 9 API gravity contains about 82% asphaltene, whereas a crude of 41 API gravity contains only about 3% asphaltene.

The presence of paraffin and asphaltene in the crude oil does not lead to problems in production or operation. It is their precipitation that leads to those problems. The precipitation and deposits of paraffins and asphaltenes in the formation, tubing, flowline, production equipment (separator, treater, flare knock out, etc.) and especially the production and storage tanks (tank bottom sludge) are generally caused by a change in equilibrium conditions surrounding the produced oil and gas production, i.e., changes in the pressure, temperature, flow rates and/or electrostatic effects.