Wax Removal Methods
Wax Removal by Mechanical Means This is the oldest method known for the removal of heavy hydrocarbon deposits. It is done by mechanically scraping the tubing. For line cleanup, soluble or insoluble pigs are used in the lines. The pigs remove a portion of the wax as they travel through the lines.
Solvents are the most popular methods of hydrocarbon removal. Some of the excellent solvents are Carbon Disulfide, Chlorinated Solvents, Benzene, Xylene and Toluene.Carbon Disulfide is one of the best known solvents for the removal of waxy deposits; however, it is extremely dangerous to handle, and its use is banned in most countries. It is explosive, with a flash of -22°F (-30°C) and autoignition temperature of 212°F (100°C). It is also very poisonous. Chlorinated solvents are excellent solvents, but they damage the catalyst used in the refinery process and are considered a fire and health hazard. Therefore, their minimal detection in any crude oil will immediately lead to the rejection of that crude by the refineries. Benzene is an excellent solvent; however, it is extremely flammable and is a carcinogenic compound (Cancer causing compounds). Xylene and Toluene are also excellent solvents; however, they quickly reach their saturation point. When solvents come in contact with the deposits, they dissolve the heavy hydrocarbon deposits until the solvents reach their saturation level. If the solvents are not removed from the well promptly after their saturation level is reached, then some of the dissolved paraffin will precipitate out of solution (recrystallize). Sometimes recrystallization leads to a worse clogging problem than before the treatment, due to the agglomeration of deposits in areas that did not previously have any deposits. Therefore, conventional solvents should be handled with caution and removed promptly after treatment.
PARC400® Chemical is designed to be used for formation cleaning, shut in wells and flow lines. PARC400® Chemical is circulated in wells that are going to be shut in for a long period of time to prevent the agglomeration of paraffin and asphaltene and eliminate start up problems. The crystal modifier in PARC400® Chemical keeps all paraffin and asphaltene in solution (liquid form) until it reaches the refinery and goes through the fractional distillation process.
Dispersants are also popular chemicals for the removal of paraffin deposits. The dispersants do not dissolve paraffin but disperse it in the oil or water through surfactant action. Dispersants are usually added to crude oil or to water before they are circulated.
Crystal Modifiers and Inhibitors
Crystal modifiers and inhibitors are a class of chemicals which attack the nucleating agents of the hydrocarbon deposit and break down and prevent the agglomeration of paraffin crystals. This is done by keeping the nucleating agents in solution.
The asphaltene particles are usually the nucleating agents. By keeping them in solution, the agglomeration of paraffins will be hindered. In order for crystal modifiers to be effective they have to be continuously present in the crude. Therefore, crystal modifiers are usually continuously injected into the well, or they may be squeezed far inside the formation to prolong their presence in the crude.
PARC400® Chemical is a Solvent, Dispersant, Crystal Modifier & Inhibitor all in one. This is why PARC400® Chemical is the chemical of choice and works so well in all applications where there is a paraffin or asphaltene problem.
PARC400® Chemical – The Chemical of choice for ALL PARAFFIN & ASPHALTENE problems!!